Kogin Orinoco

Yawon shakatawa na Orinoco

A yau za mu gabatar da wani kogi sananne sosai a duk duniya don kasancewa mafi girma kogi a Venezuela. Game da shi Kogin Orinoco. Akwai tatsuniyoyi daban-daban na mafi ban sha'awa game da wannan kogin wanda kasancewar dodanni da sauran abubuwan ban mamaki suna da hannu. Tana da adadi mai yawa na ma'adinai, muhalli da wadatar ruwa kuma godiya gareshi wayewar da ke kusa da shi na iya haɓaka.

Muna bayanin duk abin da ya shafi Kogin Oricono.

Wuri da tsawonsa

Kogin Orinoco

Sunan Kogin Orinoco ya fito ne daga ɗayan mafi ƙarancin ƙabilan asali na Venezuela. Qabilar da aka fada tuni ta bace yau saboda ambaliyar da ta faru tsawon shekaru.

An samo shi, kamar yadda muka ambata, a cikin Venezuela a cikin jihar da ake kira Amazonas. Mafi yawan wannan yanki yana da tasirin Kogin Guavire, wannan yana iyaka da Colombia. Ana ɗaukarsa mafi girma a cikin kogin ƙasar. A ɓangarensa na ƙarshe, yana rakiyar Kogin Amazon a bakinsa.

Wannan kogin mai iko yana da tsawon kilomita 2.140 kuma ana ɗaukarsa ba kogi kawai ba, amma tsarin gaba ɗaya. Idan kuma muka yi la'akari da haɗin Guavire, tsayinsa duka kilomita 2.800 ne. Wannan yasa ya zama daya daga cikin manyan koguna a duk duniya.

Yankin ta Delta yana da girma kwarai da gaske lokacin da aka gano shi, ana zaton teku ce. Girman kwandunan ma suna da girma kuma suna ɗauke da ruwa mai yawa. Kogin Orinoco yana da fiye da ƙananan koguna 436 da rafuka dubu biyu na ruwa. Wadannan kogunan sune gudummawar ruwa da yake zuwa ta kwatankwacin rafin kogin kuma hakan yana taimakawa ga karuwar yawan ruwan da yake ɗauka. Duk ruwan daga ƙarshe ya gudana zuwa Tekun Atlantika.

Adadin babban kwandon yana da wahalar aunawa, amma an kiyasta yana iya samun jimillar murabba'in kilomita 990.000, wanda 643.480 km2 ke cikin yankin Venezuela. Girman wannan kwarin ya sanya shi zama na uku mafi girma a duk Kudancin Amurka.

Mahimmancin Kogin Orinoco

tafiye-tafiye jirgin ruwa a Orinoco

Gwanin yana da mahimmancin gaske a Venezuela, ba wai kawai a tarihi ba, amma kuma ya hada da bangarori daban-daban na tattalin arziki. Ya zama ɗayan gudanawar da aka yi amfani da ita tsawon wannan lokacin don kewaya nau'ikan kayayyaki daban-daban waɗanda aka miƙa don amfani daga gari zuwa gari. Godiya ga wannan, Abu ne mai yiyuwa faɗaɗa al'ummomin da ke zaune kusa da kogin don haka ƙara yawan jama'a a waɗannan wuraren.

Hakanan yana da mahimmancin mahimmancin muhalli ganin cewa yana da manyan yankuna masu yawan dabbobi da shuke-shuke. Darajan muhalli ya ta'allaka ne da yalwa da wadataccen yanayi da yake dashi. Akwai tsire-tsire da yawa waɗanda ke hidiman adana wurin albarkacin jan hankalin yawon buɗe ido. Kamar yadda ake tsammani, wani abu na halitta yana samun mafi girman ƙimar tattalin arziki lokacin da za a iya fitar da sauran ayyukan tattalin arziki daga gare ta. Misali, yankuna daban-daban masu kariya suna da kudin shigarwa kuma ta hakan suna samun kudi kuma suna kara musu daraja. Sabili da haka, gabaɗaya suna sanya Kogin Orinoco mai darajar gaske ta kowane fanni.

Koyaya, a halin yanzu, kamar yadda aka ba da izinin haƙa rami, tasirin muhalli daban-daban sun fara bayyana wanda ke ɓata darajar mahalli. Ba wai kawai akwai gurɓacewar ƙasa ba, lalata mahalli da lalacewar ruwa, amma kuma suna ba da gudummawa ga tasirin canjin yanayi wanda a wannan yankin Mafificin lamarin ya fi dacewa da shi El Niño.

Baki da bakin ruwa

Orinoco ambaliyar ruwa

Christopher Columbus da kansa ya rubuta bakin Orinoco a cikin 1498. Yankunan raƙuman ruwa na Venezuela sune waɗanda ke karɓar bakuncin bakin kogi. An kirkiro wani yanki wanda ya fadada sama da kilomita 300 na bakin teku. Wannan yana da nisa sosai kuma da yawa daga ilimin aikin kasa sun yi aiki don gyara sauƙin wannan.

Bakin ya faɗa daga Punta playa ta yankin gabas zuwa yankin Boca Bagre. Kasancewa da yawa, masu binciken farko da Columbus ya sami kansa yayi shakkar ko sun gano sabon teku. Tana da tashoshi sama da 300 kuma Delta mai ƙarfi wacce ta kirkira tana da girman 30.000 km2.

Cikakken rangadinku zai fara ne a Amazon na Venezuela kuma a cikin mafi girman yankuna na Yankin Amazon. Idan ta kai wani matsayi da ake kira La Esmeralda sai ya haɗu da Kogin Casiquiare kuma ya yi tafiyar kilomita 290 inda Kogin Negro ya haɗu, wanda shi ma yankin Amazon ne.

Ofayan manyan rairayin ruwa shine Kogin Ventuari wannan zai fara tafiya zuwa garin San Fernando de Atabapo. A can ne inda tuni ya fara karɓar ruwan Kogin Guavire, wanda aka ambata a sama kuma yana nuna iyakar ƙasa tsakanin Venezuela da Colombia. Sauran shahararrun mashigan ruwa da ke ba da gudummawa sosai ga Kogin Orinoco su ne Caura-Merevari, da Caroní-Cuquenán, da Vichada, da Meta da Arauca.

Yanayin muhalli da tattalin arziki

Yankin Orinoco

Tunda yawancin yankunan wannan kogin ana amfani dasu don albarkatu, yana ɗaukar mahimmancin tattalin arziki da mahalli. Ana amfani da yankin gandun daji ta yadda za a sami wadatattun ma'adanai kamar su ƙarfe da aluminum.

Hakanan ana samun wuraren da ake yin amfani da su inda Orinoco yayi daidai da sauran raƙuman ruwa kamar Caroní da Cerro Bolívar. A waɗannan wurare akwai manyan baƙin ƙarfe waɗanda ke aiki don inganta masana'antu a yankin.

Hakanan akwai gefen hakar mai a gefen hagu, dab da jihohin Monagas da Anzoátegui. Ana daukar wannan mai zuwa garin El Tigre inda ake amfani da shi. Yadda ake canza man daga wuri guda zuwa wani ana yin sa ne ta hanyar bututun mai masu girma daban.

Godiya ga yawan kwararar Kogin Orinoco, manyan biranen sun sami damar gina kamfanonin hakar ma'adanai da kuma hedkwatar samar da wutar lantarki inda aka tsara gabaɗaya shirin amfani da tattalin arziki

Kamar yadda kake gani, Kogin Orinoco yana da mahimmancin gaske a duk duniya.


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  1.   Oscar m

    Abin alfahari ne kasancewar VENEZUELAN tsawon rai Venezuela da albarkatun ƙasa