Kogin Jordan

kogin Jordan a cikin Littafi Mai Tsarki

El Kogin Jordan wani kunkuntar kogi ne mai tsawon kilomita 320. Ya samo asali ne daga tsaunin Anti-Lebanon a arewacin Isra'ila, ya fantsama cikin Tekun Galili a arewacin gindin Dutsen Harmon, kuma ya ƙare a Tekun Gishiri a ƙarshen kudancinsa. Ya zama layin iyaka tsakanin Jordan da Isra'ila. Kogin Urdun shine kogi mafi girma, mafi tsarki kuma mafi mahimmanci a cikin ƙasa mai tsarki kuma an ambata sau da yawa a cikin Littafi Mai-Tsarki.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku duk halaye, tarihi, ilimin ƙasa da mahimmancin Kogin Urdun.

Babban fasali

Barazanar Kogin Jordan

Ɗaya daga cikin abubuwan da ke cikin kogin Jordan shine tsayinsa ya fi kilomita 360, amma saboda tazarar da take yi, ainihin tazarar da ke tsakanin tushensa da Tekun Gishiri bai wuce kilomita 200 ba. Bayan 1948, kogin ya nuna iyaka tsakanin Isra'ila da Jordan, daga kudancin Tekun Galili zuwa inda kogin Abis ke gudana daga gabas (hagu).

Duk da haka, tun a shekara ta 1967, lokacin da sojojin Isra'ila suka mamaye Yammacin Kogin Jordan (wato, yankin Yammacin Kogin Jordan da ke kudu da haɗuwa da kogin Ibis), kogin Jordan ya tsallaka kudu zuwa teku a matsayin layin tsagaita wuta.

Girkawa suna kiran kogin Aulon kuma wani lokaci Larabawa suna kiransa Al-Shari'ah ("wurin shan ruwan sha"). Kiristoci da Yahudawa da Musulmai suna girmama kogin Jordan. A cikin ruwansa ne Saint Yohanna Mai Baftisma ya yi wa Yesu baftisma. Kogin ya kasance wuri mai tsarki na addini kuma wurin yin baftisma.

Kogin Urdun yana da manyan tushe guda uku, dukansu sun samo asali ne daga gindin Dutsen Harmon. Mafi tsayi a cikin waɗannan shine Haṣbāni, kusa da Haṣbayya a ƙasar Lebanon, mai tsawon ƙafa 1800. (550m). Kogin Banias ya bi ta Siriya daga gabas. A tsakiyar akwai kogin Dan, wanda ruwansa ke da daɗi musamman.

A cikin Isra’ila, waɗannan koguna uku sun haɗu a kwarin Hula. Tun da farko tafkuna da fadama ne suka mamaye filin kwarin Ḥula, amma a cikin shekarun 1950 kimanin kilomita murabba'i 60 aka kwashe don samar da filayen noma. A cikin 1990s. da yawa daga cikin filin kwarin sun lalace kuma sassan sun nutse.

An yanke shawarar kiyaye tafkin da dausayin da ke kewaye da shi a matsayin wani tanadin yanayi mai karewa, kuma wasu daga cikin flora da fauna, musamman tsuntsaye masu hijira, sun koma yankin. A kudancin ƙarshen kwarin, Kogin Urdun ya yanke wani rafi ta wani shingen basalt. Kogin yana gangarowa sosai zuwa gaɓar arewa na Tekun Galili.

Samuwar Kogin Jordan

Kogin Urdun yana kwance a saman kwarin Urdun, damuwa a cikin ɓawon ƙasa tsakanin Isra'ila da Jordan wanda ya samo asali a lokacin Miocene lokacin da farantin Larabawa ya koma arewa sannan kuma gabas daga Afirka ta yau. Bayan kimanin shekaru miliyan 1. kasa ta tashi, tekun ya ja da baya. Triassic da Mesozoic strata an gano su a gabas ta tsakiya kwarin Jordan.

Flora da fauna na Kogin Jordan

kogin Isra'ila

Babu shakka Kogin Urdun yana bi ta tsakiyar ɗaya daga cikin busassun yankuna na Gabas Kusa da Kusa. Mafi yawan Ana samun ƙasa mai albarka a Yammacin Kogin Jordan da gabas da yammacin kogin Jordan. A cikin wannan basin za ku iya samun daga yankunan da ke ƙarƙashin ruwa na Bahar Rum zuwa yankuna masu busassun inda nau'in ya dace da rayuwa.

Akwai kuma irin kifi Luciobarbus longiceps, Acanthobrama lissneri, Haplochromis flaviijosephi, Pseudophoxinus libani, Salaria fluviatilis, Zenarchopterus dispar, Pseudophoxinus drusensis, Garra ghorensis da Oxynoemacheilus insignis; mollusks melanopsis ammonis y melanopsis Costata da crustaceans kamar Potamon kayan lambu da kuma na asalin Emerita. A cikin basin suna zama dabbobi masu shayarwa irin su rodents Mus Macedonicus da Eurasian otter (ruwa lutu); kwari kamar Calopteryx syria da tsuntsaye irin su Sinai bullfinch (Carpodacus synoicu).

Amma ga flora, shrubs, bushes da ciyawa rinjaye, kuma a maki mafi girma girma itatuwan zaitun, itacen al'ul, eucalyptus, har ma da itacen oak da Pines, kuma a cikin na karshe wurare girma bushe bushes.

Mahimmancin tattalin arziki

Ruwan Kogin Urdun shine na biyu mafi mahimmancin albarkatun ruwa a Isra'ila. Yawancin ruwan ana amfani da su ne wajen samar da kudin noma da kiwo, kuma yayin da al’ummar kogunan ke karuwa da kuma bunkasar tattalin arziki, yin famfo ruwa yana da matukar muhimmanci don biyan bukatun mazauna. Kasar Jordan kadai ke samun ruwan cubic mita miliyan 50 daga kogin Jordan.

Bukatun ruwa na noma da amfanin gida sun yi yawa; a daya bangaren kuma bukatun ruwa na bangaren masana'antu kadan ne. Wannan ya samo asali ne saboda karuwar adadi da sikelin masana'antu a yankin masana'antu na Tekun Aqaba da yankin Tekun Gishiri.

Barazana

Kogin Jordan

Da zarar kogi mai haske da aminci, Kogin Urdun yanzu ya zama gurɓataccen gurɓataccen ruwa da gishiri sosai. A bisa ka'ida, kogin yana ratsa daya daga cikin yankuna mafi yawan jama'a da karancin ruwa a duniya, don haka amfani da albarkatun kasa yakan wuce karfinsa na farfadowa. An yi kiyasin cewa ruwan kogin ya ragu zuwa kashi 2% na yadda yake gudana. Haɓaka ƙazafi, busassun yanayi, da yin famfo da yawa suna haifar da salinization. A taƙaice, mutane sun damu da makomar Kogin Urdun da kuma mutanen da ke cikin kwarjinsa.

Domin kaucewa munanan matsalolin muhalli, wasu kungiyoyi da gwamnatoci sun taru domin mai da hankali kan dorewar sarrafa albarkatun kogi. Kogin Urdun wani yanki mai busasshiyar gabas ta tsakiya, kogin Jordan muhimmin abu ne, na musamman, kuma albarkatu mai tamani ga miliyoyin mutanen da ke zaune kusa da shi.

Ya yi hasarar kusan kashi 98% na kwararar ruwa idan kasar da ke amfani da ruwanta (Isra'ila, Siriya, Jordan da Falasdinu) tabbas za su bushe nan da 'yan shekaru masu zuwa. Ba tare da kankare da matakan inganci ba. Isra'ila da Siriya da kuma Jordan ne ke da alhakin rushewar kogin Urdun, kogin da aka yi wa Yesu baftisma, wanda a yanzu ya zama magudanar ruwa da aka bude a sararin sama wanda ta cikinsa ne dubban mitoci masu kubik na ruwa ke kwarara. Ruwan Tekun Galili da Tekun Gishiri, mai tazarar kilomita 105 daga kudu, ana kwashe kusan mita biliyan 1.300 a kowace shekara.

Ƙasar Isra'ila kullum tana canja wurin ruwa, wanda ke wakiltar kusan kashi 46,47% na yawan amfanin gida da noma; Syria na da kashi 25,24%, Jordan 23,24% sai Falasdinu 5,05%. Don haka, kogin Jordan ba ya zama tushen samar da ingantaccen ruwa mai inganci, kuma a yanzu da kyar yake kwarara ya kai mita cubic miliyan 20-30 a kowace shekara.

Ina fatan da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da kogin Jordan da halayensa.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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