Jejin Sonoran

Hamada Sonora

El Jejin Sonoran wani yanki ne na wani katafaren layin dogo na busassun halittu a Arewacin Amurka wanda ya tashi daga kudu maso gabashin jihar Washington zuwa jihar Hidalgo dake tsakiyar tsaunukan Mexico, kuma daga tsakiyar Texas zuwa gabar teku. Baja California Peninsula.

A cikin wannan labarin, za mu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da hamadar Sonoran, menene halaye da mahimmancinsa.

Babban fasali

babban cacti

Wannan busasshiyar koridor na kusan murabba'in kilomita miliyan ɗaya an raba shi zuwa manyan hamada huɗu:

  • Babban Basin.
  • Hamadar Mojave.
  • Hamadar Sonoran.
  • Hamadar Chihuahuan.

Babban hamadar Chihuahuan ya ƙunshi jerin wurare masu tsaunuka waɗanda ke kewaye da Gulf of California ko Tekun Cortez. Ko da yake ƙungiya ɗaya ce a cikin Amurka, idan ta shiga Meksiko sai ta rabu zuwa wani yanki mai bushewa na nahiyar, wanda aka fi sani da Hamadar Sonoran, da kuma hamadar bakin teku da ke kan iyakar Baja California. An san shi da Baja California Desert.

Wannan hadadden hamadar Sonora-Baja California, kamar yadda muka ayyana shi anan, ya ƙunshi murabba'in kilomita 101,291 na hamadar Baja California da kuma murabba'in kilomita 223,009 na hamadar Sonoran ta gaskiya. Gabaɗaya, kashi 29 cikin ɗari (kilomita murabba'in 93,665) na wannan yanki na jeji yana cikin Amurka, sauran kashi 71 cikin ɗari (kilomita murabba'in 230,635) a Mexico. Mun yi kiyasin cewa kusan kashi 80% na yankin jeji sun kasance lafiyayyu

Idan aka kwatanta da kewayen yankin, tsaunuka a cikin hamadar Sonoran ba su da tsayi, a matsakaici, kusan mita 305. Duwatsun da suka fi shahara su ne tsaunin Chocolate da Chaquewara a California, da tsaunin Cofa da Haquajara a Arizona, da tsaunukan Pinacote a Mexico.

Yanayin Hamada na Sonoran

Yanayin hamadar Sonoran

Yankin yana daya daga cikin mafi bushewa kuma mafi zafi a Arewacin Amurka, tare da yanayin zafi sama da 38 ° C. Lokacin sanyi yana da laushi, tare da yanayin zafi na Janairu tsakanin 10ºC zuwa 16ºC. Yawancin hamada suna samun ƙasa da 250 mm na hazo a kowace shekara. Saboda haka, kusan dukkanin ruwan da ake amfani da shi yana fitowa ne daga ƙasan ƙasa ko kuma daga koguna daban-daban, irin su Colorado, Gila, Gishiri, Yaqui, Fuerte da Sinaloa, waɗanda ke ratsa hamada daga tsaunuka da kewaye.

Noman ban ruwa wani muhimmin bangare ne na tattalin arzikin yankin, kuma ruwan ruwan ya ragu matuka tun a shekarun 1960. Babban tsarin ruwa na Arizona babban tsarin ruwa ne wanda ke samar da miliyoyin galan na ruwa a kullum. daga kogin Colorado zuwa hamada ta gabas, musamman yankunan Phoenix da Tucson.

Flora

A cikin wannan yanki mai girma, flora yana tafiya ta matakai biyu, lokacin damina da lokacin rani, wanda shine mafi wahala ga dabbobin da ke zaune a cikinta. Kamar duk manyan hamada na Arewacin Amirka, Hamadar Sonoran tana da manyan cacti, irin cacti da ke fitowa akai-akai a fina-finan kaboyi. Wadannan cacti masu ban sha'awa suna da girman girman daga girman babban yatsa har zuwa 15 m, ba su da ganye, suna da ƙaya don kare kansu daga dabbobi masu ƙishirwa, suna da tushe mai laushi mai laushi, an tsara tushen su don kama ruwa mai yawa kamar yadda zai yiwu. Zai iya kai har ton 10, tare da kashi huɗu cikin biyar ko fiye na wannan ruwa ne. Hakanan za su iya rayuwa har zuwa shekaru 200 kuma suyi girma a hankali, suna girma mita kowane shekaru 20 zuwa 50.

Yayin da hamada ke zama saniyar ware kuma ga alama babu kowa a duniya a lokacin fari, lokacin da ruwan sama na farko ya sauka, rayuwa ta sake bayyana a matsayin aljanna. Komai cike yake da launi cacti blooming cikin shuɗi, ja, rawaya da fari, kwadi suna fitowa daga busassun gadaje daga tabkuna don haifuwa, 'ya'yan Dandelion na barci waɗanda ke yin fure da kuma samar da ƙarin iri don tabbatar da rashin mutuwa.

Komai ya zama duniya kore da launi. Bishiyoyi irin su palo blanco, palo iron, toote, palo verde, da mesquite suna da sauran tsarin daidaitawa, kamar girma a kan bankunan rafi da tuddai, gajarta fiye da iskar ramuwa, da suna da katako mai kauri da dogayen saiwoyin da za su iya lalacewa. Ratsa ƙasa har sai kun sami tafki. Misali, bishiyar mesquite tana kusan kafewa tun tana karama, amma da zarar ta sami ruwa sai ta yi girma.

Sonoran Desert Wildlife

Hamada mafi girma a Arewacin Amurka

Bi da bi, dabbobin daji na Sonoran suna amfani da nasu tsarin rayuwa, kuma kwari irin su gizo-gizo da kunamai sun koyi rayuwa cikin kwanciyar hankali a wannan duniyar da ta bambanta. Wasu ƙwai ƙwai suna kwance a cikin busassun tafkuna, kuma idan sun cika, dabbobin suna rayuwa. Abin mamaki kamar yadda ake iya gani, akwai nau'ikan kifaye kusan 20 a cikin hamadar Amurka da Sonora, sannan kuma kowannen su ya samu hanyar tsira a yanayi sabanin yanayinsa. A daya bangaren kuma, akwai nau’ukan dabbobi masu rarrafe irinsu kadangaru, kuraye, kadangaru, macizai, kunkuru da macizai wadanda suke yin gidajensu a cikin jeji.

Tsuntsaye kuma suna nan, kuma da rana a Aguayes za ku iya ganin gwaraza, masu tsini, tattabarai, kwarto da matafiya suna zuwa sha, da waɗannan biyun na ƙarshe ana iya ganin su suna gudu ta cikin daji. Akwai kuma tsuntsayen ganima, irin su sparrowhawk, masu cin kananan tsuntsaye da beraye, irin su beran kangaroo ko kancito.

Sauran dabbobin da ke cikin hamadar Sonoran na da dabbobi masu shayarwa, wadanda da yawa daga cikinsu, irin su coyotes, foxes, rodents, zomaye da zomaye, suna zaune ne a cikin burrows na karkashin kasa wanda ya kebanta da duniyar waje, duka daga zafi da rana, sanyi da fari. , za su tara abinci a cikin wadannan matsugunan don tsira. Koyaya, cougars suna rayuwa a cikin kogo da matsugunan dutse.

Sauran dabbobin hamada kamar manya-manyan tumaki da barewa waɗanda ke zaune a kan duwatsu da tsaunuka waɗanda ba za su iya shiga baSuna da kyaututtukan gasar farauta saboda kyawawan tururuwansu, shi ya sa mafarauta a kullum suke nemansu su sanya su a kan hanyar bacewa.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da hamadar Sonoran da halayensa.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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