Dutsen Merapi

Dutsen merapi volcano

Dutsen Merapi dutsen mai aman wuta ne da ke tsakiyar Java, Indonesia, kimanin kilomita 30 daga arewacin Yogyakarta, wannan birni yana da mazauna fiye da 500.000. An ayyana shi a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin manyan tsaunuka masu ƙarfi a duniya, musamman saboda yana cikin yankin da aka rushe. Bugu da ƙari kuma, ita ce mafi ƙarfi a cikin dukkan tsaunuka masu aman wuta a Indonesiya.

A cikin wannan labarin za mu gaya muku duk abin da kuke buƙatar sani game da Dutsen Merapi, menene halayensa, fashewa da mahimmancinsa.

Babban fasali

Dutsen merapi

Gunung Merapi, kamar yadda aka sani a ƙasarsa, an rarraba shi a matsayin stratovolcano ko haɗaɗɗen dutsen mai aman wuta wanda tsarinsa ya samo asali daga magudanar ruwa da aka kora sama da miliyoyin shekaru. The Global Volcanic Activity Shirin ya furta cewa shi ne located a 2.968 mita saman teku matakin, ko da yake Amurka Sashen Binciken ambaci shi a 2.911 mita. Waɗannan ma'aunai ba daidai ba ne, saboda ci gaba da aikin volcanic zai canza su. A halin yanzu ya yi ƙasa da mummunan fashewar da ya faru kafin 2010.

Kalmar "Merapi" na nufin "Dutsen Wuta." Yana kusa da wani yanki mai yawan jama'a, kuma tsananin fashewar ya sa ya zama wuri a cikin shekaru goma na aman wuta, wanda ya sa ya zama daya daga cikin tuddai 16 da aka fi nazari a duniya. Duk da hatsarin, mutanen Javan suna da wadata da tatsuniyoyi da tatsuniyoyi, bugu da kari, an ƙawata kyawawan kyawawan dabi'unsu a kasan ciyayi masu yawa kuma gida ne ga nau'ikan dabbobi da yawa.

Samuwar Dutsen Merapi

volcano mai aiki

Merapi yana cikin yankin ƙaddamarwa inda farantin Indiya-Australian ya nutse a ƙasan farantin Sunda (ko bincike). Yanki na ƙasa wuri ne da faranti ke nutsewa ƙarƙashin wani faranti, yana haifar da girgizar ƙasa da / ko ayyukan volcanic. Abubuwan da ke samar da faranti suna ture magma daga ciki na duniya, suna haifar da matsananciyar matsa lamba, wanda ya tilasta shi ya tashi sama da sama har sai ɓawon burodi ya tsage ya samar da dutsen mai aman wuta.

Ta fuskar yanayin kasa, Merapi su ne mafi ƙanƙanta a kudancin Java. Ta yiwu fashewar ta ta faro ne shekaru 400.000 da suka wuce kuma tun daga lokacin ake siffanta ta da halin tashin hankali. Lava mai ɗanɗano da ƙaƙƙarfan kayan da aka kora a lokacin fashewar dutsen mai aman wuta da aka taru a yadudduka kuma saman ya taurare, ya zama siffa mai faɗin dutsen mai tudu. Bayan bayyanarsa, Merapi ya ci gaba da girma a lokacin Pleistocene har zuwa shekaru 2,000 da suka wuce rushewar babban ginin ya faru.

Dutsen Merapi ya fashe

volcano a Indonesia

Tana da tarihin tashin tashin hankali. An sami fashewar fashewar abubuwa 68 tun daga shekara ta 1548, kuma a lokacin wanzuwarsa, an tabbatar da fashewar abubuwa guda 102 a duniya. Yawanci yana fuskantar fashewar fashewar abubuwa masu girman gaske tare da kwararar pyroclastic, amma bayan lokaci, sai su zama masu fashewa kuma suna samar da dome na lava, filogi mai siffar madauwari.

Yawancin lokaci yana da ƙananan kurji a kowace shekara 2-3 da babban kurji a kowace shekara 10-15. Magudanar ruwa da suka hada da toka, iskar gas, tsakuwa da sauran gutsutsutsun duwatsu sun fi lava hadari, domin suna iya saukowa da gudu fiye da kilomita 150 a cikin sa’a guda kuma su kai ga wurare masu yawa, wanda hakan zai haifar da lalacewa gaba daya ko kuma a wani bangare. Matsalar Merapi ita ce, tana cikin ɗaya daga cikin yankunan da ke da yawan jama'a a Indonesiya, tare da mutane fiye da miliyan 24 a cikin nisan kilomita 100.

Barkewar da ta fi tsanani ta faru a shekara ta 1006, 1786, 1822, 1872, 1930, da 2010. Fashewar fashewa a shekara ta 1006 ta yi karfi sosai har aka yi imanin cewa ta kai ga kawo karshen Masarautar Mataram, duk da cewa babu isassun shaidun da ke tabbatar da wannan imani. . . Duk da haka, shekarar 2010 ta zama shekara mafi muni a cikin karni na 353, wanda ya shafi dubban mutane, ya lalata kadada na ciyayi tare da kashe mutane XNUMX.

An fara taron a watan Oktoba kuma ya ci gaba har zuwa Disamba. Ya haifar da girgizar ƙasa, fashewar fashewar abubuwa (ba ɗaya kaɗai ba), dusar ƙanƙara mai zafi, zabtarewar ƙasa mai aman wuta, kwararowar pyroclastic, gajimaren toka mai aman wuta, har ma da ƙwallon wuta wanda ya sa kusan mutane 350.000 suka tsere daga gidajensu. A ƙarshe, ya zama ɗaya daga cikin bala'o'i mafi girma a Indonesia a cikin 'yan shekarun nan.

Kwanan kurji

Dutsen dutse mafi girma a Indonesia ya sake barkewa a ranar Litinin, 16 ga Agusta, 2021, inda koguna na lava da iskar gas daga kasan dutsen a tsibirin Java mai yawan jama'a, wanda ya kai tsawon kilomita 3,5 (mil 2).

Ana iya jin karar fashewar dutsen mai aman wuta mai nisan kilomita da dama daga dutsen Merapi, kuma tokar aman wuta da ta tashi daga dutsen mai aman wuta yana da tsayin mita 600 (kusan ƙafa 2000). Tokar dai ta lullube al'ummomin da ke kusa da su, duk da cewa tsohon umarnin kwashe mutanen yana nan kusa da rafin, don haka ba a samu asarar rai ba.

Darektan cibiyar kawar da bala'o'i mai aman wuta da dutsen Yogyakarta Hanik Humeda, ya ce wannan shi ne hayaki mafi girma daga tsaunin Merapi tun bayan da hukumomi suka daga matakin hadarin a watan Nuwamban bara.

Kubbar kudu maso yamma an kiyasta tana da girma na mita cubic miliyan 1,8 (kubik ƙafa miliyan 66,9) da tsayin kusan mita 3 (ƙafa 9,8). Daga nan sai wani bangare ya ruguje da safiyar litinin, inda ruwan sama ya tashi daga kudu maso yammacin dutsen a kalla sau biyu.

A cikin yini, aƙalla wasu ƙananan abubuwa biyu na pyroclastic sun fashe, suna gangarowa kusan kilomita 1,5 (mil 1) tare da gangaren kudu maso yamma. Wannan dutse mai tsayin mita 2.968 (ƙafa 9.737) yana kusa da Yogyakarta, wani tsohon birni mai yawan ɗaruruwan dubban mutane a yankin babban birni na tsibirin Java. Shekaru aru-aru, birnin ya kasance cibiyar al'adun Javanese da wurin zama na gidan sarauta.

Matsayin faɗakarwa na Merapi ya kasance a matsayi na biyu cikin matakan haɗari huɗu tun lokacin da ya fara fashewa a watan Nuwamban da ya gabata, kuma Cibiyar Rage Hadarin Kasa da Dutsen Dutsen Indonesiya ba ta ɗaga shi ba duk da ƙarin aiki mai aman wuta a cikin makon da ya gabata.

Ina fatan da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da Dutsen Merapi da halayensa.


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