Karl Lyell

Karl Lyell

A cikin ilimin halayyar ƙasa akwai manyan masana kimiyya waɗanda suka yi rawar gani, don haka suna taimakawa ci gaba da ƙarin koyo game da duniyar tamu. Daga cikin mashahuran masana kimiyyar da muke da su Karl Lyell. Masanin ilimin ƙasa ne wanda ke kula da kafa ilimin ƙasa da zamani kuma ya sami manyan abubuwan bincike waɗanda suka taimaka haɓaka ilimin game da yadda duniyarmu take aiki. Ya kasance ɗayan mashahuran wakilai na daidaito da tsarin ƙasa.

A cikin wannan labarin zamuyi magana ne game da tarihin rayuwar Charles Lyell, tare da ba da labarin duk mahimman abubuwan da suka shafi rayuwarsa da kuma abubuwan da ya yi don ganin ilimin ƙasa ya ci gaba a zamaninsa.

Charles Lyell ya fara

Masanin kimiyya Charles Lyell

Labari ne game da wani mutum wanda aka haifa a Kinnordy, Scotland a ranar Nuwamba 14, 1797. Yayi karatun lauya a Jami'ar Oxford, amma ya sadaukar da rayuwarsa ga ilimin kasa. Kamar yadda kake gani, abin da gaske yake taimaka maka ci gaba da ci gaba azaman mutum ba abin da kake karantawa ba ne, amma abin da kake sha'awa ne. Ta hanyar sadaukar da kansa ga ilimin geology saboda sha'awa, ya sami nasarar cimma abubuwa da yawa waɗanda ake yin su ba da son rai ba. Daga cikin su, ya sami damar buga Ka'idojin binciken kasa a 1833. Ya ɗauki juzu'i da yawa don tattara dukkanin ilimin da ke kunshe a ciki.

Lyell an horar dashi akan wasu masana kimiyyar zamani kuma rubutunsa bai dace ba. A ciki ya kare cewa duniya an halicce ta ne sannu a hankali daga tsawon lokaci wanda al'amuran ilimin ƙasa kamar waɗanda muka sani a yau ilimin aikin kasa. Labari ne game da girgizar kasa duwatsu masu aman wuta, ambaliyar ruwa, ci gaba da zaizawa, da dai sauransu.

A cikin waɗannan shekarun akwai wata ƙa'idar da ta fi taɗuwa game da samuwar Duniya wanda ke faruwa. Wannan ra'ayin ya kare cewa wasu manyan masifu ne da suka faru suka gina duniya kuma suka tsara ta cikin kankanin lokaci, amma hakan ya canza fasalin duk wani yanayi da kuma sauƙin rayuwa.

Sun kasance ra'ayoyi daban-daban guda biyu kuma suna ba da ka'idar da ta saba da duk abin da aka kafa a wannan lokacin wani abu ne mai hatsari. Idan ba haka ba, fada Giordano Bruno. Koyaya, a cikin littafinsa Principles of Geology, sassa da yawa waɗanda suka bayyana rubutunsa sun fita dabam.

Aikin gaskiya, daidaito da daidaito mai ƙarfi

Ka'idodin ilimin ƙasa

An bayyana sassa daban-daban na rubutun a cikin Ka'idodin ilimin Geology. Ofaya daga cikin waɗannan sassan an kira shi ainihin. Wannan shine bayanin Lyell na abubuwan da suka gabata daga abubuwan ilimin ƙasa waɗanda suka yi aiki a yau. Wannan shine, wakilan ilimin ƙasa kamar yashewar iska wanda ke taimakawa jigilar abubuwan hawa da ci gaba da ci gaba, ya sami damar canza sauƙi a cikin dubban shekaru tare da ƙarancin lokaci da jinkirin aiki.

Ya kuma kare cewa dukkan al'amuran da suka shafi kasa iri daya ne kuma suna faruwa kadan da kadan a ci gaba, sai dai wasu da ke da hadari. Wannan an san shi da daidaituwa. Masifun bala'i suna magana ne game da girgizar ƙasa da dutsen da ke aman wuta a cikin ɗan gajeren lokaci kuma ya haifar da mummunar illa game da yanayin ƙasa.

A ƙarshe, ya kare cewa an bayar da tarihin Duniya ta zagaye na yau da kullun wanda aka ƙirƙira abu kuma aka lalata shi. Wannan ana kiransa daidaitaccen ma'auni. Wannan ka'idar daidaitaccen ma'auni na asali ne wanda zai iya amfani da shi ga duniyar halittu duk hanyoyin tafiyar da yanayin kasa kamar zaizayar kasa da daskarar da kasa, dukkanin al'amuran da suke faruwa na tsaunuka da girgizar kasa. Bayanin da ya samar ya samo asali ne daga wasu abubuwan lura da ilimin kasa da ta yi yayin dogon tafiye-tafiyen da ta gudanar a Turai da Arewacin Amurka.

Asalin rayuwa da wahayi

Daidaita Lyell

Charles Lyell ya kuma gabatar da wasu ra'ayoyi game da asalin rayuwa a duniyar tamu. Ya ɗauka cewa an daɗe ana halaye masu yawa da halaye masu yawa na halittu. Wannan halittar da lalata halittar ta kasance ne saboda motsi da nahiyoyin suka fuskanta wanda kuma ya haifar da sauye-sauye masu yawa a cikin yanayin da ya shafi rayuwar halittar. Wannan ya faru ne tare da gaskiyar cewa nau'in ba zai iya gasa da wasu nau'ikan ko yin ƙaura zuwa wuraren da ke da kwanciyar hankali ba. Lokacin da wadannan jinsunan suka mutu, wasu ne suka maye gurbinsu wadanda suka tashi sakamakon sabbin sabawa da yanayin muhalli da ake gabatarwa a kowane lokaci a tarihi.

Godiya ga waɗannan bayanan, aikin Charles Lyell ya sami nasara sosai a duk duniya. Ya zama abin wahayi ga masana kimiyya da yawa, gami da Charles Darwin.

Lyell's wahayi a cikin sana'a abubuwan da aka buga sune saboda masanin kimiyya James Hutton. Ya karanta game da asalin Duniya a Ka'idar Duniyar inda Hutton ya kirkiro wasu ra'ayoyi game da samuwar duniya da kuma kuzarin da take ci gaba da samu. A wancan lokacin, tunanin masifa ya dace da tunanin halittar Duniya da fassararta ga Baibul.

Lyell an dauke shi daya daga cikin wadanda suka kafa stratigraphy, wanda zasu iya fara nazarin yadudduka na saman duniya. Ya kasance ɗaya daga cikin marubutan farko da suka fara rarraba ta ta hanyar wasu karatuttukan teku da aka gudanar a Yammacin Turai. A cikin waɗannan sassan, ya yi nazarin mollusks tare da bawo kuma ya sami damar rarrabe daban-daban nau'in dutse a cikin zamani guda uku: Eocene, Miocene da Pliocene.

Daraja da tafiye-tafiyen Charles Lyell

Tsarin Lyell

Ya kasance a cikin shekara ta 1827 cewa ya sami damar barin sana'ar dole ne ya iya sadaukar da kansa sosai ga ilimin ƙasa. Ya kasance memba na Royal Society, a cikin abin da zai iya inganta ci gaban karatunsa. Kodayake James Hutton a baya ya buga cewa Duniya ta samo asali ne daga sannu a hankali kuma ba sauye-sauye kwatsam kamar yadda masifa ta kare ba, Lyell ne ya bada bayyanannen bayani a lokacin.

A cikin shekarun karshe na rayuwarsa ya wallafa wani aiki wanda zai zama abin dubawa a fagen ilimin kasa da kuma bin diddigi. Labari ne game da Abubuwan binciken ƙasa kuma a 1863, ya buga aikinsa na uku da ake kira Zamanin mutum. An nada shi Sir kuma ya sami ambaton girmamawa da yawa a duk rayuwarsa. Ya mutu a ranar 22 ga Fabrairu, 1875.

Ina fatan wannan bayanin ya taimaka muku wajen saduwa da ɗayan magabatan kimiyyar ilimin zamani.


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