Alps na Switzerland

dusar ƙanƙara ta Switzerland

Daya daga cikin shahararrun tsarin tsaunuka a duniya, wanda ke Turai, sune Alps na Switzerland. Anyi la'akari da mafi tsaunin dutse mafi tsayi a duk Turai kuma ya kai ƙasashe 8. Ya ratsa Austria, Faransa, Jamus, Monaco, Switzerland, Slovenia, Italiya da Liechtenstein. Waɗannan tsaunuka sun mamaye wuri mai mahimmanci a yanayin ƙasa na waɗannan ƙasashe, kuma al'adu da yawa sun samo asali ne daga wannan tsaunin.

Don haka, za mu keɓe wannan labarin don gaya muku duk halaye, asali da geology na Alps na Switzerland.

Babban fasali

Alif din Switzerland

Yankin tsaunin yana da kyau mai ban mamaki kuma ya daidaita al'adun ƙasashe da yawa. Waɗannan shimfidar wurare suna bayyana a cikin tsaunuka da garuruwa da yawa a yankin kuma sun zama sanannen wurin yawon buɗe ido. Wadannan wurare suna yin kankara, hawan dutse da ayyukan yawo, kuma suna karɓar masu yawon buɗe ido sama da miliyan 100 kowace shekara.

Na farko yana cikin ƙasa baka fiye da kilomita 800 a kudu maso gabashin Turai. Ya zarce daga yankin Bahar Rum zuwa yankin Adriatic. Anyi la'akari da shi azaman sauran tsarin tsaunin kamar Carpathians da Apennines. Daga cikin dukkan duwatsunsa, zamu iya samun Matterhorn, Monte Rosa Massif da Dom. Mont Blanc shine mafi girman kololuwar sa, kuma mai yiwuwa Matterhorn shine wanda aka fi sani da sifar sa. Duk waɗannan halayen sun sa Alps na Switzerland ya zama ɗayan shahararrun tsarin tsaunuka a duniya.

Asalin kalmar Alps yanzu ya bayyana. Zai iya fitowa daga Celtic, wanda ke nufin fari ko tsayi. Kalmar ta fito kai tsaye daga Alps na Latin, ta wuce Faransa. Daga marigayi Paleolithic zuwa yanzu, gaba ɗaya yankin Alps ya kasance wuri inda ƙabilu da yawa suka zauna. A cikin wasiyya za ku ga yadda Kiristanci ya ci gaba a Turai kuma an kafa gidajen ibada da dama a kan dutsen. Wasu daga cikinsu an gina su a ƙasa mafi tsayi kuma ƙauyuka na iya girma a kusa da su.

Tarihi ya gaya mana cewa don shiga wasu yankuna da wurare na addini, An dauki tsaunukan Alps na Switzerland a matsayin cikas da ba za a iya shawo kansu ba. Saboda yawan dusar ƙanƙara da wurare masu ban mamaki, ana kuma ɗaukar su wurare masu haɗari. Daga baya a cikin karni na XNUMX, fasaha na iya ba da izinin bincike da bincike.

Geology na Alps na Switzerland

Alpes

Dukan tsarin tsaunukan Alps ya fi tsawon kilomita 1.200 kuma gaba ɗaya yana kan nahiyar Turai. Wasu kololuwa sun fi mita 3.500 sama da matakin teku kuma akwai kankara sama da 1.200. Matsayin dusar ƙanƙara yana kusan mita 2400, don haka akwai wurare da yawa don yawon shakatawa na dusar ƙanƙara. An rufe kololuwar dusar ƙanƙara ta dindindin, tana yin manyan ƙanƙara, kuma tsayin ya kasance sama da mita 3.500. Mafi girman kankara an san shi da sunan Aletsch.

Ana la'akari da ginshiƙan sauran tsarin tsaunuka, kamar pre-Alpine inda tudun Jura yake. Wasu sassan tsaunin sun kai ga Hungary, Serbia, Albania, Croatia, Bosnia da Herzegovina, da sassan Montenegro.

Daga mahangar ilimin ƙasa, za mu iya raba wannan tsauni zuwa tsaka -tsaki, ɓangaren yamma, da ɓangaren gabas. A kowane ɗayan waɗannan sassan zuwa sassa daban -daban ko ƙungiyoyin duwatsu. Dangane da yanayin ƙasa, mu ma za mu iya rarrabe Alps na Kudancin Switzerland, waɗanda kwarin Valtelina, Pusteria da Gailtal suka ware daga wasu yankuna. A kudu maso yamma akwai Tekun Alps kusa da Bahar Rum, suna yin iyaka tsakanin Faransa da Italiya. A gaskiya, Sanannen abu ne cewa Mont Blanc yana tsakanin Faransa da Italiya kuma yana da kankara mafi tsawo a Faransa. Yankin yammacin wannan tsaunin ya kai kudu maso yammacin Switzerland.

Wasu daga cikin manyan koguna a Nahiyar Turai, kamar Rhone, Rhine, Hainaut da Delaware, sun samo asali ne daga cikin Alps kuma suna kwarara zuwa cikin Bahar Maliya, Bahar Rum da Tekun Arewa.

Asali da samuwar Alps na Switzerland

yankin tsaunin turai

Ganin girman kewayon, samuwar sa wani ɓangare ne na jerin abubuwan da suka shafi yanayin ƙasa. Masana ilimin ƙasa sun yi imanin cewa zai ɗauki kusan shekaru 100 don fahimtar tsananin duk abubuwan da suka faru na ƙasa wanda ya kai ga Alps na Switzerland. Idan muka mayar da ita asalin ta, muna iya ganin cewa an ƙirƙiri tsohon ne saboda karo tsakanin farantan Eurasian da farantin Afirka. Waɗannan faranti biyu na tectonic sun haifar da rashin kwanciyar hankali a ƙasa da tsayi. Tsarin yana ɗaukar biyu ko fiye don kammalawa, yana rufe tsawon lokacin da zai ɗauki miliyoyin shekaru.

An kiyasta cewa duk waɗannan motsi na orogenic ƙarshe ya fara game da miliyan 300 da suka wuce. Tectonic faranti sun fara karo a ƙarshen Cretaceous. Rikicin waɗannan farantiyoyin tectonic guda biyu ya haifar da rufewa da karkatar da mafi yawan filin da ke daidai da Tekun Tethys da ke tsakanin faranti biyu. Rufewa da ƙaddamarwa ya faru a cikin Miocene da Oligocene. Masana kimiyya sun iya gano nau'ikan duwatsu daban -daban na faranti biyu na ɓawon burodi, wanda shine dalilin da ya sa ya zama mai ƙarfi don ɗaga ƙasa da kafa wannan tsaunin. Sun kuma yi nasarar gano wasu sassan tsohuwar tekun da ke cikin tekun Tethys.

Flora da fauna

Babban makasudin yawon bude ido shine flora da fauna ban da kyawawan shimfidar wurare. Akwai muhallin halittu na dabi'a kamar tuddai masu tsayi, kwaruruka, filayen ciyawa, gandun daji, da wasu gangaren tudu. Narkewar dusar ƙanƙara ta haifar da wasu tafkuna kuma saman ruwa yana da nutsuwa, wanda ke son ci gaban flora da fauna.

Akwai banbanci mai yawa a waɗannan wuraren. Wasu nau'in alpine na yau da kullun sune awakin dutse ko awakin daji. Akwai wasu dabbobin kamar antelopes, marmots, katantanwa, asu, da sauran invertebrates. Bayan an kori kerkeci, beyar, da lynx a zahiri saboda barazanar ɗan adam, suna komawa cikin tsaunukan Switzerland. Saboda kariyar wasu wurare na halitta, yana zama abin rayuwa a gare su.

A cikin flora mun sami filayen ciyawa da gandun daji da yawa, tare da pines, itacen oak, firs da wasu furannin daji.

Ina fatan cewa tare da wannan bayanin zaku iya ƙarin koyo game da Alps na Switzerland da halayensa.


Abubuwan da ke cikin labarin suna bin ka'idodinmu na ka'idojin edita. Don yin rahoton kuskure danna a nan.

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