As we know, so far we have only found life on our planet and it is due to the zone in which it is with respect to the Sun. We are in what scientists call the "habitable zone". Thanks to this to the atmosphere and the ozone layer We can live. The Earth has developed various types of weather depending on the range of temperatures in which we move. Unlike the temperatures that we find in the rest of the Solar System, our planet moves in a very low temperature range.
In this article we can learn about the different types of climate that exist on our planet and what characteristics each one has. Do you want to know more about it?
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What is the weather like?
It is normal to confuse meteorology with climatology. The differentiation of these concepts must be clearly understood so that it is well understood. When we look at the weather man and he tells us that in two days it will rain and that there will be gusts of wind of 50 km / h, he is referring to the weather. In this case, we are analyzing the atmospheric conditions that are going to occur at a certain time and place. This is part of the meteorological forecast in which, thanks to a range of meteorological instruments, you can know with a high degree of reliability what is going to happen.
On the other hand we have the weather. Climate can be defined as the set of states of variables that remains constant over time. Surely with this phrase you will not have found out anything. We will explain it better in depth. The meteorological variables are temperature, the level of rainfall (either rain or snow), storm regimes, wind, atmospheric pressure, etc. Well, the set of all these variables have values throughout a calendar year. They are known as climate controllers.
All the values of the meteorological variables are recorded and can be analyzed as they are always around the same threshold and are analyzed in a climagram. For example, in Andalusia no temperatures have been recorded below -30 degrees. This is because these temperature values do not correspond to the Mediterranean climate. Once all the data is collected, climates are zoned according to these values.
The north pole is characterized by cold temperatures, strong winds, precipitation in the form of snow, etc. These characteristics make them called polar climate.
Types of climate according to what exists on Earth
The climates of the Earth can not only be classified according to the meteorological variables mentioned above, but also other factors intervene such as They are the altitude and latitude or the distance of a place with respect to the sea. In the following classification we are going to see roughly the types of climates that exist and the characteristics of each one. In addition, of each great type of climate there are some much more detailed subtypes serving smaller areas.
These climates are characterized by high temperatures. Average annual temperatures are around 20 degrees and there are hardly any very large differences between seasons. They are places where prairies and forests abound with high humidity and, in many cases, abundant rainfall. We find are the subtypes:
- Equatorial climate. As its name indicates, it is a climate that extends over the equator. Rainfall is generally abundant throughout the year, there is high humidity and it is always hot. They are found in the Amazon area, central Africa, Insulindia, Madagascar and the Yucatan Peninsula.
- Tropical climate. It is similar to the previous climate, only that it extends in the line of the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. The only difference is that here the rainfall is abundant only in the summer months. It can be found in the Caribbean, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, some parts of South America, Southeast Asia, part of Australia, Polynesia, and Bolivia.
- Arid subtropical climate. This type of climate has a wide range of temperatures and rainfall varies throughout the year. It can be seen in southwestern North America, southwestern Africa, parts of South America, central Australia, and the Middle East.
- Desert and semi-desert. This climate is characterized by having high temperatures throughout the year with very pronounced temperature ranges between day and night. There is hardly any humidity, the vegetation and fauna are scarce and the rainfall is also scarce. They are found in central Asia, Mongolia, west central North America, and central Africa.
They are characterized by having average temperatures that are around 15 degrees. In these climates we can see the seasons of the year well differentiated. We find places distributed between the middle latitudes between 30 and 70 degrees from the parallels. We have the following subtypes.
- Mediterranean climate. Among its main characteristics we find quite dry and sunny summers, while winters are rainy. We can find it in the Mediterranean, California, southern South Africa, southwestern Australia.
- Chinese climate. This type of climate has tropical cyclones and winters are very cold.
- Oceanic climate. It is the one found in all coastal areas. In general, there are always a lot of clouds and rain, although there are neither winter nor summers with extreme temperatures. It is on the Pacific coasts, New Zealand and some parts of Chile and Argentina.
- Continental weather. It is the indoor climate. They are found in areas that have no coastline. Therefore, they heat up and cool down earlier since there is no sea that acts as a thermal regulator. This type of climate is found mainly in central Europe and China, the United States, Alaska and Canada.
In these climates, temperatures do not usually exceed 10 degrees Celsius and there is abundant precipitation in the form of snow and ice.
- Polar climate. It is the climate of the poles. It is characterized by having very low temperatures all year round and the absence of vegetation since the ground is permanently frozen.
- High mountain climate. It is found in all high mountain areas and is characterized by abundant rainfall and temperatures that decrease with height.
I hope that with this information you can better know the types of weather.