Estonia: characteristics and climate

northern europe climate

Estonia is a state in the Baltic region of northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation. It has a unique climate, geology and diversity, so it is worth studying in depth.

Therefore, we are going to dedicate this article to tell you everything you need to know about Estonia, its characteristics, biodiversity and biology.

Key features


Estonia covers an area of ​​45.227 square kilometers (17.462 square miles) and is affected by mild climate. Estonians are Finnish and the only official language of Estonian is closely related to Finnish.

Estonia has a population of 1,34 million and it is one of the least populated member states of the European Union, the Eurozone and NATO. Estonian GDP per capita is the highest of all the countries that were once part of the Soviet Union. Estonia is classified as a high-income economy by the World Bank and a high-income member of the OECD. The United Nations lists Estonia as a developed country with a very high Human Development Index.

Estonian Climate

estonia climate

Estonia is located in the northern part of the temperate zone and the transition zone between continental and oceanic climates. Because Estonia (and all of northern Europe) is constantly heated by ocean air affected by the heat of the North Atlantic, it has a milder climate despite its location in the northern latitudes. The Baltic Sea causes climatic differences between the coastal and inland regions. Estonia has four seasons of almost the same length. The average temperature ranges from 16,3 ° C (61,3 ° F) in the Baltic Sea islands to 18,1 ° C (64,6 ° F) inland, with July being the hottest month and -3,5 ° C (25,7 ° F) on the Baltic Sea islands. 7,6 ° C (18,3 ° F) inland, February, the coldest month.

The average annual temperature in Estonia is 5.2 ° C. February is the coldest month of the year, with an average temperature of -5,7 ° C. July is considered the hottest month of the year, with an average temperature of 16,4 ° C.

Climate is also affected by the Atlantic Ocean, the currents of the North Atlantic Ocean, and the Icelandic Minima. Iceland is an area known for cyclone formation, and the average atmospheric pressure is lower than that of neighboring areas. Estonia is located in a humid area and precipitation is greater than total evaporation. Average rainfall from 1961 to 1990 was 535 to 727 mm (21,1 to 28,6 mm) per year, the strongest in summer. The number of rainy days per year is between 102 and 127, with the highest average rainfall on the western slopes of the Saqqara and Hanja Highlands. The snow cover in southeastern Estonia is deep and usually lasts from mid-December to the end of March.

Industry and environment

estonia map

Despite the general lack of resources in Estonia, this land still provides a variety of secondary resources. The country has large amounts of oil, shale, and limestone, and forests cover 50,6% of the land. In addition to shale and lime oil, Estonia also has a large number of underdeveloped or widely developed reserves of PR, asphalt amphibole and granite.

Large amounts of rare earth oxides have been found in tailings accumulated during the 50 years of exploitation of Sillamäe uranium, shale and loparite. As the price of rare earths has risen, the extraction of these oxides has become economically viable. Currently, the country exports around 3.000 tons per year, which represents around 2% of world production.

The food, construction and electronics industries are one of the most important branches of Estonian industry. In 2007, the construction industry employed more than 80,000 employees, which represents approximately 12% of the national workforce. Another important industrial sector is the mechanical and chemical industries, located mainly in Ida-Viru county and near Tallinn.

The oil and shale mining industry is also concentrated in the east and Estonia, producing around 90% of the country's electricity. Shale oil is widely used, but it also causes serious damage to the environment. Although the amount of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere has been decreasing since the 1980s, sulfur dioxide produced by the rapid development of the mining industry in the Soviet Union in the 1950s still pollutes the air.

Estonia is a country dependent on energy and its production. Many local and foreign companies have been investing in renewable energy. The importance of wind energy has steadily increased in Estonia. Total wind energy production is close to 60 MW. At the same time, the projects currently under development have a value of around 399 MW, and projects with more than 2.800 MW are under construction. Recommendations were made in the Peipus Lake area and the Hiiumaa coastal area.

Seasons of the year in Estonia

Estonian winter is very cold: even during the day, the temperature remains below freezing for a long time. The average temperature in January and February ranges between -1 ° C on the coast of the two main islands (Hiuma and Saaremaa) down to -3,5 ° C on the coast of Tallinn and the north coast and -4 ° C on the coast. Waiting. In the Gulf of Riga, it drops to -5 ° C in the interior of the northeast.

In spring, the day lengthens and the temperature rises slowly; Thaw usually occurs in early April, but even between late April and early May, the cold and snow can suddenly return. April is a highly variable month, so cold weather can start to appear in the second half of the month. From mid-May, the temperature is usually acceptable.

Summer in Estonia is a pleasant season, the highest temperature fluctuates around 20/22 degrees, which means that the temperature is not high, but it is suitable for walks and outdoor activities. The night is cool, with a minimum temperature of 12/13 degrees (up to 15 ° C on the west coast).

Summer is quite rainy as it rains on average a third of the day, but it is not impossible to see the sun. Fall is a gray and rainy season. If the temperature in September is still acceptable, it will cool down so quickly that the first snowfall may fall in late October. Compared to spring, autumn is darker due to shorter days, this difference is noticeable everywhere, but it is more pronounced in the Nordic countries.

I hope that with this information you can learn more about Estonia and its climate.

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